Describe specific characteristics or adaptive techniques that could be used to gather valid and reliable data.

You are developing a study to analyse the incidence of sexual behaviour between men in order to better understand the spread of HIV/AIDS in a small rural community. Sexual intercourse between men in this area is highly stigmatised and you are concerned that you may not find an appropriate number of participants for the study.
Therefore you need to use Case-Control data gathering methods to recruit study participants.
Describe specific characteristics or adaptive techniques that could be used to gather valid and reliable data. Provide examples of social methods that are aimed at the collection of data for stigmatised or illicit behaviour.

Note: incidence conveys information about the risk of contracting the disease. Do not confuse this with prevalence, which indicates how widespread the disease is.

Your answer of the question through the essay should consider the following points:
What are the aims and objectives of your study and the hypothesis you want to test?
What type of study design would choose and describe why you think it would be more appropriate than other possible study designs?
How you would select your study population?
How would you define the outcome and what methods would you use to measure the outcome?
What are the potential sources of bias in your study and what steps would you take to minimise them?
How would you analyse and interpret your results?
What are the limitations of your study?

A good answer will exhibit the following characteristics:
Your essay will be appropriately structured, with a clear introduction and conclusion.
The arguments will be supported by critical analysis based on evidence from the literature and practical examples.
You will demonstrate a detailed knowledge and understanding of the topic, making use of appropriate literature and demonstrating evidence of relevant wide reading.
Material used in your answer will be well organised and used to answer the question directly, there will be no irrelevant information. All references used to write the essay will be cited and included in a bibliography at the end of the essay, written according to Harvard convention.
Your written style will be clear, lucid and succinct. There will be no unnecessary use of words and no use of colloquialisms or personal pronouns. Your written presentation will be of high quality, avoiding typographic, spelling and grammatical errors. Diagrams and summary tables will be used only where appropriate.
Insert page numbers.

Materials are uploaded that will help to understand the question of the essay and the subject.

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