Explain the relationship between suffering and ego according to Buddha.

I. Answer “True” or “False” to the following statements (All the T/F questions below will be used in the midterm exam)_____1. The Buddha taught that we suffer because we are partial to ourselves._____2. Epistemology is the study of what is real._____3. It is almost impossible to separate what Socrates taught from his whole personality._____4. Socrates believed that virtue implies excellence of function._____5. According to Plato, injustice is a form of imbalance._____6. According to Plato, aristocracy is an imperfect form of government and democracy is the perfect form of government._____7. Aristotle believed in two levels of reality: the natural and the supernatural._____8. Aristotle based his ethics on how we do behave, not on some “higher” ideal._____9. According to Aristotle, virtue is “goodness in the extreme.”……..10. The Stoics argues that nothing is in our control._____11. Thomas Aquinas argued that goodness is absence of evil._____12. Thomas Aquinas’s most important argument for the existence of God is called “the ontological argument.”_____13. The cosmological argument concludes that there must be an Uncaused Cause capable of imparting existence to all other things.
II. Definitions and essay questions. (Five definitions and three essay questions will be used.)Ch. 1: Definitions: Philosophy and areas of philosophy, willed ignorance.Ch. 2: Definitions: Yin and Yang (in Ancient Chinese metaphysics)Essay question:a. Explain the relationship between suffering and ego according to Buddha. What is the cure for suffering according to Buddha? Is his account adequate or are there forms of suffering that Buddha cannot cure? Be specific and explain.Ch. 3: Essay question:a. Is “might makes right” the only explanation for social changes like the civil rights movement? Could other factors besides self-interest account for a shift in basic social values? What factors? Is any thing lost by accepting a might-makes-right interpretation? Is anything gained?Ch. 4: Essay question:a. What do you think of Socrates’ claim that all evil is ignorance? Do you think it is possible to knowingly choose (will) evil? If all evil is ignorance, can we ever justly punish evildoers? Explain and justify your view in detail.b. Carefully analyze Socrates’ claim that “the unexamined life is not worth living for a human being.” What did he mean? Was he correct? Why or why not?Ch. 5: Definitions: Plato’s Form, the Divided Line, and the Allegory of the Cave.Essay question:a. Explain the origin, nature, and demise of democracy according to Plato. Cite and evaluate contemporary evidences to support or refute his view.Ch. 6: Definitions: Philosophical naturalism, Aristotle’s form and matter. Eudaimonia.Essay question:a. What is entelechy and how is it significant to Aristotle’s ethics, specifically to his theory of virtue and happiness?b. What is the “principle of the mean”? Give two examples of using it to evaluate a course of action or moral choice. How do character and habit affect happiness and virtue according to Aristotle? Explain.Ch. 7: Definitions: Hedonism, CynicismEssay question:a. What do the Stoics think falls under our control? What do the Stoics think does not fall under our control? Do you agree? Why or why not? Analyze the relationship between influence and control.b. Explain the Stoic attitude toward relationships. Explain how it differs from today’s attitudes. Analyze both views.Ch. 8: Definitions: The Five Ways.Essay question:a. State the problem of evil, and explain how this problem is supposed to challenge the existence of an all-powerful, all-wise, all-good God. How does Thomas Aquinas solve the problem of evil? What do you think of his solution? Explain.Ch. 9. Definitions: A priori knowledge and a posteriori knowledge, rationalism, methodic doubt and evil genius.Essay question:a. What is the Method of Doubt? Give a brief summary of its function in terms of Descartes’ overall effort to discover certain knowledge. And evaluate his effort.