Explain what technique(s) you used for creating test norms (standardisation) and why you selected them over others (eg, criterion-referenced vs norm-referenced).

Assignment BriefWord Count3,000 wordsAssignment OverviewIn this assignment you are expected to produce a 3,000 word report on the process of validation and standardisation of a psychometric instrument. The report should both describe and analyse this process. This assignment draws on topics introduced throughout the study block, focusing specifically on the steps taken for the validation of a psychometric instrument.To complete this task, you will need to conduct data analysis using R for the validation and standardisation of a psychometric instrument. A dataset is provided for this purpose. You should demonstrate your understanding of how an instrument is validated by following strict psychometric guidelines.
DatasetIn this assignment, you will analyse the psychometric properties of a subset of items from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP — https://ipip.ori.org).The dataset is provided in the ‘files’ area below:
Be aware — Dataset AccessPlease be aware that while the content on IPIP is opensource, the dataset that you are provided with for this assignment is not for public access and should be used only for the purpose of the assignment.
About the Dataset35 items measuring personality were selected from a real dataset comprised of 5,000 respondents.The Big Five Model of Personality was used for item development.The dimensions are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism (abbreviation: OCEAN).The respondents were asked to rate themselves on the characteristics below.The sign ‘+’ on the right-hand side of the column Dimension (eg, O1+) indicates that the item connotation is positive, apart from the items measuring Neuroticism, whose positive sign conveys a negative idea. On the contrary, the sign ‘-‘ on the right-hand side of each dimension indicates a negative idea for all dimensions, but Neuroticism, whose negative sign conveys a positive idea.For this assignment, you do not need to be familiar with the Big Five Model. However, if you want to know more about the model and learn more about the interpretation of the items there is information here.
Report StructureThe report should be divided into the following sections. Some guidance questions are provided, as are suggested word counts:1. Introduction (500 words)As you have not been involved in the process to develop an instrument to measure this construct, briefly describe what steps you would have taken to test its content validity in the design process.2. Data Analysis — Psychometric Properties (1,700 words)Explain what technique(s) you used for testing construct validity and why you chose it instead of alternatives (eg, why choosing FA instead of PCA, or vice-versa).Report the most important results of the construct validity process including, but not limited to, decision on the final number of factors and what items should be selected for the final version of this instrument.Explain what technique(s) you used to test reliability and why you chose this instead of alternatives (eg, why choosing KR instead of Cronbach’s alpha, or vice-versa).Report key results of the reliability analysis. Discuss instances of items that if deleted, could substantially improve reliability.Explain what technique(s) you used for creating test norms (standardisation) and why you selected them over others (eg, criterion-referenced vs norm-referenced).Provide a norms table for the interpretation of test scores.You may wish to include additional data analyses not included in the R script provided (eg, SEM or psychological networks). This step is not compulsory so please feel free to move to the next section if you don’t want to carry out extra data analyses.3. Conclusion (800 words)Explain the importance of validation of psychometric instruments for people analytics.Describe potential limitations faced in the process of test validation.

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