Physiology homework help

1)   T.E  TP6 DQ 1

Smoking can cause a shortened life span and impair the quality of life in old age (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). The heavier the smoker, the worse the effects can be (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). One of the big health risks associated with smoking are developing lung cancer or heart disease (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). Cancer from smoking has also been linked to the mouth, esophagus, prostate, bladder, and kidney (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). Smokers can also develop a smoker’s cough, which is the body’s attempt to clear the lungs of foreign particles (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). Non-smokers are at risk, as well. If they are around smokers and breathe in second-hand smoke, they can develop lung cancer, as well (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). Children who grow up with parents who smoke tend to have more respiratory infections, along with diminished lung function as their lungs mature, and are more likely to develop pneumonia than are children of non-smokers (Sarafino & Smith, 2017).
E-cigarettes can still provide nicotine exposure, and the exposure can increase over time (Das & Prochaska, 2017). Because there are different flavors, such as candy and alcohol, it appeals to youth and is addictive (Das & Prochaska, 2017). Vaping has an open tank system that allows users to vape other substances, including cannabis oil (Das & Prochaska, 2017). These can be just as addictive as tobacco, maybe even moreso because people believe it’s better for them and helps them to stop smoking tobacco.
Das, S. & Prochaska, J. (2017), E-Cigarettes, Vaping, and Other Electronic Nicotine Products: Harm Reduction Pathways or New Avenues for Addiction? Psychiatric Times.
Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486

2) S.F    TP6 DQ 1

Smoking can be harmful to anyone who partakes in this habit whether it is cigarettes, cigars, vaping or e-cigarettes. Studies have confirmed that chemicals and toxins are including in each which causes serious health problems along with them being addictive. The tobacco used in smoking products contain nicotine, tars and carbon monoxide (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). As the nicotine is smoked the carbon monoxide gas is immediately absorbed into the bloodstream reducing the oxygen-carrying function in the blood affecting the physiological functioning of the body (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). When a person smokes it is noted that the lungs absorb the nicotine quickly transmitting it into the bloodstream. Once the nicotine enters into the bloodstream, it is then carried to the brain when various chemicals are then released throughout the body starting with the central and sympathetic nervous systems causing arousal in the body (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). Once the brain and body functions are affected the body then starts to experience additional side effects of increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure and alertness. Repetitive smoking leads to a number of health risks such as a reduced life span, heart disease, skin disorders and many different cancers.
Smoking of e-cigarettes or vaping are battery operated and do not use tobacco. However, they do use a cartridge that is filled with a liquid which contains different chemicals. These liquid chemicals include a flavorant or other chemical, nicotine, THC, and/or CBD oils (, 2019). Studies have not found any links to vaping or e-cigarette as the link to any serious disease but it has been reported that more than 800 people have had severe lung disease after using vaping or e-cigarette products (, 2019). It has been confirmed that prolonged use of vaping and e-cigarettes cause some of the same illness and diseases as smoking cigarettes, pipes, and cigars.
Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). (173-175) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486. Retrieved from (09/2019). Health Risks of E-Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Waterpipes. Retrieved from

3) T.A     TP 6 DQ 1

Even though the dangers are printed on the carton of cigarettes, they are still smoked daily. With nearly 6 million deaths per year associated with smoking here in the United States, we continue to produce, sell, and smoke cigarettes (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). Not only does smoking reduce your life by several years, smoking also affects the quality of one’s life who chooses to smoke (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). I have found conflicting evidence on different studies when it comes to smoking cigarettes and their risk, as well as smokeless tobacco such as vaping, cigars, and pipes. According to our textbook, we are told cancers of the mouth and esophagus can result from smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff) (2017). We are also told that individuals who smoke cigarettes are linked to cancers such as lung, mouth, esophagus, prostate, bladder, and kidney. However, according to Brad Rodu, DDS Professor, Department of Medicine endowed Chair, Tobacco Harm Reduction Research School of Medicine at University of Louisville delivers a different message. He provided facts from case studies which conflict with what we are told from virtually all other health professionals. Rodu claims there is no evidence that smoking cigars by men have any elevated health risks of heart disease, stroke, or emphysema. He continues to state that tobacco products do not carry the same health risks. Explicitly, smokeless tobacco, vaping, cigars, and pipes should not be labeled as being as dangerous or deadly as smoking cigarettes (Rodu, 2019). Rodu also states that moist snuff or chewing tobacco is 98% less hazardous to men than smoking cigarettes (2019). Sarafino & Smith wrote coronary heart disease (CHD) is also associated with smoking, as well as chronic bronchitis, and acute respiratory infections (2017).

Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486

4) G.S   tp6 DQ 2

Substance abuse has a major impact on individual, families, and communities. The effect of substance abuse is cumulative, significantly contributing to costly social, physical, mental, and public health problems (National institute of health, 2023).
Using illegal substance can have a person’s health that can have negative impact I their mental and physical behavior for instance drugs taken by women during pregnancy cross the placenta and may harm the fetus, and the babies born to addicted mothers are likely to be addicted. Overdosing can lead to death that opioid painkillers have reached epidemic level killing nearly 15,000 people a year (CDC,2012)
There are specific drugs that can have a risk factors, long term marijuana smoking is linked to users development of cognitive impairment and lung damage to which is similar by being a heavy smoker, another substance abuse that can harm one’s health is effect of cocaine and methamphetamine on the cardiovascular using these drugs can cause the blood vessel to constrict, heart rate to speed up, and the blood pressure to increase suddenly, also it can lead to a stroke or myocardial infraction and death (Sarafino, & Smith,2017).
People who use cocaine can also create a health problem if use in long -term. Cocaine inhalation or snorting can cause serious damage to the nasal structures, and lungs, it can also lead to poor health and neurological symptoms (Sarafino, & Smith,2017).
I believe that all substance abuse can generate health problems no matter what kind of substance, either alcohol, smoking, or illegal drugs like medical pills that these can have negative impact on our health, mentally, and physically, one affected is the behavior of an individual who use substance abuse, second is the mental capacity that it can damage the brain.
My testimony about my son who became addicted in substance abuse suffer mentally and physically, that he become a different person for the illegal drugs and pills he’s taking ,it ruin his mental capacity that he’s brain have some damage because of over dose twice, having his physical appearance look so terrible he lost weight and his skin is dry, he had some episode that he hallucinate seeing your love one’s go through this horrifying disease can tear you apart, Substance abuse is bad whether it’s short-term or long term use.
Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486
National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Prescription Drug Abuse: A Research Update from the National Institute on Drug Abuse [Internet]. Bethesda, MD: NIDA; 2011 Dec [cited 2017 Aug 23].

5)  P.C  : Tp6  DQ 2

People with addiction often have one or more associated health issues as a resuls, they can be or include, lung or heart disease, stroke, cancer, or mental health conditions, to name a few. Medical tests like imaging scans, chest X-rays, and blood tests can show the damage done by long-term drug use throughout the body. (NIDA. 2020) There is also the need to factor in that most people who use these substances during their use live a poor lifestyle for health maintenance. For instance, the meth mouth would not be so rapid or bad, if the meth smoker could focus and remember to brush their teeth or not stay up for days without brushing them. Time gets away from them while they are high. Alcoholics suffer a lot from stomach issues due to their alcohol use, they also often have dental issues from the vomiting associated with excessive drinking and hangovers. The acid and other stomach contents eat away at the enamel. In a vicious cycle, the alcoholic and meth user will go, due to the fact that the dental issues they get can cause stomach issues. Same thing with people who use heroin, cocaine, pills, etc. You don’t take care of yourself lost in addiction so either the drugs and alcohol will kill you or the complications of them will. 
   I will never forget sitting in the hospital ER waiting room several years ago and seeing a family come in with the mother of a late 20s or early 30s young lady who was in the ER finally succumbing to her death from liver disease due to alcoholism. There are some conversations that God wants a person to hear for His purpose. That one was one for me and it broke my heart. The pain on that mama’s face shook me. 
NIDA. 2020, July 13. Addiction and Health  Retrieved from on 2021, July 6

6) T.A     TP6 DQ 2

Not all substance use causes a health problem. It is possible for a person to take over the counter cold medicine for a couple of days and use it responsibly. The person is using the over-the-counter medication to suppress the symptoms of the cold. Substance use problems occur when the drug causes harm to the body. At this point, it is likely the person has become addicted to the substance(s). With that being said, almost every substance legal or illegal we put into our bodies will produce an effect on the executive function areas of the brain. There are several legal substances that get abused or mixed with illegal substances. For example, marijuana is now legal in almost every state. Ingesting marijuana has health risks consisting of infertility, paranoia, and lack of motivation. It is not uncommon for dealers to cut drugs such as cocaine, PCP, opioids, or even baby powder in with marijuana. The goal is either to make the marijuana more addictive (by adding more addictive drugs, or saving money by adding baby powder to it, giving the customer something they think is made with cocaine, yet just powder. Hence, the dealer gets paid more for it. Another example of a legal substance being combined with illegal substance is nicotine being added with drugs such as PCP, opioids, or any other substance which can be inhaled. A substance many people do not think about as being dangerous is household products. Products such as bleach and ammonia can cause brain damage and death when inhaled. Both products are commonly found in methamphetamine. There are other household cleaners that will produce a high when the fumes are consumed, for example laundry detergents, dry cleaning chemicals, rug cleaners, air fresheners, and even hair products such as hairspray. It is common for prescribed drugs to also be abused. Sometimes by someone who is not prescribed to take it. Family members can take another person’s medication such as Ritalin or Adderall. Which can cause seizers or even death during the first use or over time. Another substance that is legal which can be abused is caffeine. Caffeine can come in form of liquid (soda, tea, coffee, energy drinks) food form (chocolate, energy bars), or pills (Vivarin, green tea tablets). When your body has too much caffeine, the person can have insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or tremors (Gonzalez de Mejia & Ramirez-Mares, 2014). Alcohol, which is legal for adults can cause many health problems as well. More so when it becomes an addiction. Women who drink while pregnant can cause health development problems with the developing fetus, financial problems if they miss work or get fired for insubordination, as well as all the health problems associated with drinking heavily (cirrhosis of the liver, heart disease, muscle tissue disease, gastritis, pancreatitis, and peripheral nerve damage) (O’Keefe, DiNicolantonio, O’Keefe, J. H., & Lavie, 2018). Anabolic steroids are another substance that can be used in the US by prescription but is not uncommon to be abused by either the person prescribed or sold to others illegally by the person they are prescribed for. Anabolic steroids can cause infertility, organ failure and significant emotional symptoms such as mood swings, aggression, and paranoia) (Christon et al. 2017). Opioids, which are frequently prescribed by doctors to aid in the relief of pain is often overused as well as over prescribed. Opioids are used because they cause the body to relax in a deep state. Even when used as prescribed, the body can have major side effects such as dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. Once the body becomes dependent on the substance, and tolerance is built, a person can overdose on the substance when they try to get the same calming effect the drug delivers. The body often goes into respiratory depression (Benyamin et el., 2008).
Just as illegal drugs can cause addiction and health problems, there are many other substances out there that are labeled as legal, yet can be just as addictive or deadly.

Benyamin, R., Trescot, A. M., Datta, S., Buenaventura, R., Adlaka, R., Sehgal, N., Glaser, S. E., & Vallejo, R. (2008). Opioid complications and side effects. Pain physician, 11(2 Suppl), S105–S120.