Scientific Method and Analysis II

For this portion of your assignment, please complete the following three (3) questions. In order to receive full marks, you must show your calculations. If you prefer to do your calculations by hand (paper and pen), please scan the assignment and save it in .pdf or insert the images into a word document before submitting it.Question 1 (4 Points)The term error is used in two different ways in hypothesis testing:Type I error (or Type II), andStandard error.Explain each type of error. What is the probability of a Type I error? What can a researcher do to influence the probability of a Type I error? What is the probability of a Type II error?Question 2 (6 Points)Some researchers claim that childhood participation in organized sports is related to improved self-esteem for adolescents. To test this claim, a researcher selects a sample of n = 20 adolescents with a history of participation on a sports team. Each adolescent is given a standardized self-esteem questionnaire. For the general population of adolescents, scores on the questionnaire are normally distributed with μ = 75 and σ = 15. The sample of n = 20 adolescents with a history of participation had a mean score of M = 85.Can the researcher conclude that scores on the self-esteem questionnaire for this sample of adolescents are significantly different from those of the general population? Use a two-tailed test with α = .05. Be sure to state your null hypothesis, a decision about that null hypothesis, and a conclusion explaining your results with an APA format statement. Calculate Cohen’s d if necessary.Question 3 (6 Points)A researcher would like to determine whether an over-the-counter herbal nasal spray has an effect on mental alertness for infants. A sample of n = 16 infants is obtained, and each baby is given a standard dose of the spray one hour before being tested for mental alertness. For the general population of infants, scores on a mental alertness screening test are normally distributed with μ = 60. The infants in the sample had an average score of M = 56.5 and an s = 8.Can the researcher conclude that scores on the screening test are significantly different after administering the spray? Use a two-tailed test with α = .05. Be sure to state your null hypothesis, a decision about that null hypothesis, and a conclusion explaining your results with an APA format statement. Calculate Cohen’s d if necessary.