What is the historical significance of this writing for the history of the West in general?

Primary sources are original or contemporary materials that historians study when they write about the past. They include writings, artifacts, letters, official reports, and a myriad of other materials, and they are the building blocks for our understanding of history. However, in order to use these materials responsibly, we need to be alert to the circumstances of the source’s creation and any potential distortions, inaccuracies, or bias.Your paper will begin by choosing a document from the Brophy book “Perspectives from the Past” and there is a list of approved primary sources from that book at the end of this assignment sheet. You need to read it carefully and then write a paper about the document/passage and its author. The paper should be organized around your answers to the questions below and you need to discuss the passage and its context with good historical detail. You should start the paper with a brief introduction that provides some background on the author and the historical circumstances in which he/she was writing. You should then organize the paper in paragraphs that correspond to the sets of questions. Finally, the paper needs a conclusion that offers general thoughts on the importance or significance of the writing based on your historical research.Let me be clear on a couple of things that have led to student confusion in the past. The passage I expect you to read and write about is the passage that is located in Brophy, “Perspectives from the Past.” For example, if you choose to write about Machiavelli’s The Prince, you need to read and write about the specific section of that book that is located in Brophy. You should research The Prince and Machiavelli beyond what is found in “Perspectives from the Past” but you must talk about this material, and failure to do this is problematic. Also, the author of the passage is Machiavelli and I am not looking for you to research or write about the translator or editor of the book that this passage was taken from.Your paper should be 3-4 typed pages in length (it can be longer but should not exceed 5 pages under any circumstances), double-spaced in 12 point font (Times New Roman) size. Your name and the name of the document you are writing about should be at the top of the first page.The essay should address and answer as many of the following questions as possible:1. Who wrote the source? When was it written? What is the historical context of the source (what previous historical events or developments may have contributed to the production of the source or the viewpoint of the author). Research the author and provide some relevant background information on him/her and the written piece. This should be accomplished in the first paragraph or two and will serve as your introduction2. If it is a history or some account of a person or event, what were the sources used to compile it? What is the purpose or intent of the source? Why was the source created? Is it intended to persuade? Give a factual account of some event? Is the passage from Brophy taken from a larger piece of writing or book? What was the purpose or intent of the larger piece of writing or book? Was it produced for public or private consumption? Who was the intended audience? In what ways might the targeted audience have influenced the way the source was written? Body paragraph3. What are the main points of the text/passage? What is the author trying to convey to the reader? What factual information does the author use to support his views? Use a couple of brief quotes from the text as support. It is important that you discuss and fully explain the contents of the passage. Imagine that you are describing the main points of the passage to someone who has not read it and explain it as carefully as possible. Use specific arguments or points from the passage to support what you are saying. Body paragraph4. What opinions are offered in the text? What is the author’s point of view? What biases can be found in the source? Is the author credible? Did he/she have reliable knowledge of the event or phenomenon? Use strong historical research into the author and the context of the writing to support what you say in this section. What other sorts of documents would you want to look at to verify the information in the source? Body paragraph5. What topic or topics in history would this source have been useful in studying? How might historians have used this document and for what purposes? What is the significance of this source for historians? What is the historical significance of this writing for the history of the West in general? ConclusionYou need to do some research on the historical context of the primary source and on the background of the author. You are required to use at least two additional sources as part of this research, and one can be an online source (Wikipedia, etc…) while the other source must be printed (book or article – these can, however, be accessed electronically).Try to be concise in your writing as you have a lot of ground to cover in only 3-5 pages (a paper shorter than 3 pages will be penalized but I won’t penalize a paper longer than 5). Use as much evidence from the document and your research as possible to support what it is you are saying in the essay.You need to provide citations that tell the reader where you found the material in your essay, and I prefer that you use the Chicago/Turabian format, however, I will not penalize you if you use MLA or APA. A paper that provides no in-text citations or footnotes and only provides a list of works cited or bibliography will be seriously penalized. The reader needs to know where you found the material you use in a paper! If you do not use Chicago/Turabian, you must also provide a works cited page. If you use Chicago/Turabian I do not need a bibliography as nearly all of the information in the footnotes or endnotes is identical to the information in a bibliography.
Here are some links if you want to try the Chicago/Turabian formathttps://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocChicago.htmlhttps://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/This is a website that can help you with formatting your citations.http://www.eturabian.com/turabian/index.htmlThis is a link to instructions on how to insert a footnote or endnote in MS Word.https://support.office.com/en-ie/article/Insert-delete-or-edit-footnotes-and-endnotes-54a7235b-6488-4b88-8ee7-f3d66d3372d9#bm2Your paper will be evaluated and graded based on the quality of your writing, and points will be deducted for errors in spelling, grammar, and sentence structure. If your writing is confusing and difficult to understand, your grade will suffer.• Make sure that you put your paper through a spellcheck, but understand that this is not going to find all errors (it is not going to find a properly spelled word that is incorrectly used)• Proofread your paper after it is completed. Try reading the paper aloud to spot confusing, poorly worded sentences and other errors, and have someone else read it to find mistakes that you might not be able to see. The college provides access to free, online tutoring that is accessible through Blackboard (link labeled “Tutoring”) and you should consider submitting your rough drafts to a tutor to get advice for improvements.• While you are encouraged to use a couple (2-3) short quotes, the rest of the paper must be in your own words (simply changing a few words around is not acceptable and constitutes plagiarism). A paper with plagiarized sentences or passages will result in an F for the assignment. If a significant portion of the paper is plagiarized, you will receive a ZERO for the assignment. If you have questions about what constitutes plagiarism please consult the following link: http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/what-is-plagiarism/. There are a lot of online resources that will explain it to you.• Write your paper in the simple past tense and do not alternate verb tenses.• Choose a document that you understand and avoid documents that you don’t. Make sure that you can answer most, if not all, of the questions above before you settle on a source.• Organize your paper in structured paragraphs – one paragraph for each set of questions, and include a brief introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph.• Don’t write in the first person.Finally, your paper will be graded holistically based on how well you accomplish the directives of the assignment and the quality of your writing and research. Please email, call or come see me if you have questions about the assignment or its requirements.For your second paper you will simply select a different passage from the Brophy, Perspectives from the Past book, and follow the same instructions.Dr. PowellApproved List of Primary Documents from Perspectives from the Past:Herodotus, The Histories: Manners and Customs of the Scythians – pg. 55Herodotus, The Histories: The Second Persian Invasion of Greece – pg. 100.Thucydides from The Peloponnesian Wars – pg. 106Aristophanes, “Lysistrata” – pg. 122Plato, “Apology” – pg. 131.Plutarch, Lives – pg. 174Tacitus from “Germania” – pg. 185Seneca, “On the Brevity of Life” – pg. 193St. Benedict from The Rule – pg. 221Gregory of Tours from History of the Franks – pg. 226Bede, A History of the English Church and People – pg. 253Einhard from The Life of Charlemagne – pg. 262Ali Ibn Al-Athir – An Arabic Account of the First Crusade – pg. 297Heloise – Letter to Abelard – pg. 302Guibert of Nogent, On the Uprising of the Laon Commune and the Murder of Bishop Gaudry – pg. 309Thomas Aquinas – Summa Theologica – pg. 316.Hildegard of Bingen, Letter to the Clergy of Mainz – pg. 317Jan Hus from The Church – pg. 398Vasco da Gama, Reactions to Indigenous Peoples, 1497-1498 – pg. 410Christopher Columbus – Letter on His First Voyage – pg. 414Baldesar Castiglione from The Book of the Courtier – pg. 422.Niccolo Machiavelli from The Prince – p. 430Martin Luther from On the Jews and Their Lies – p. 450John Calvin from Letter to a French Seigneur, 1548 – pg. 460Saint Ignatius of Loyola, “The Spiritual Exercises” – pg. 463Saint Francis Xavier – “A Letter from India” – pg. 466Reginald Scot from Discoverie of Witchcraft – p. 486Michel Eyquem de Montaigne from “Of Cannibals” – p. 499Thomas Mun, from England’s Treasure by Forraign Trade. pg. 517Adam Smith from The Wealth of Nations – pg. 544Nicolus Copernicus, from Six Books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs – pg. 556