What might Jamie’s supervisor do to fix the problem?

Jamie is not feeling very motivated at work. Jamie is aware that working an extra hour every day will create a remarkable improvement in job skill and thus job performance. Jamie also knows that supervisor Alex has committed to giving raises to all employees with improved job skills/performance. However, Jamie does not want a raise and would rather get a nice office with a window to enjoy beautiful weather when working those long hours. Evaluate Jamie’s expectancy, instrumentality, and valence (VIE theory) related to the current lack of motivation. What might Jamie’s supervisor do to fix the problem?Elaborate thoroughly and use perfect APA style. Your response should be approximately 300 words. Credit your sources both in the body of your work and at the end on the References page. You do not need a title page but all other parts of this paper should be in APA style.
I will provide excerpts from my course textbook below to help complete this assignment:“One of the most popular theories of work motivation is based on the work of Victor Vroom (1964) and stems from the much earlier work of Edward Tolman (1932). Vroom’s expectancy theory includes a model termed valence–instrumentality–expectancy (VIE). The major premise of this model is that people’s behaviors result from conscious choices among alternatives and that these alternatives are evaluated with respect to valence, instrumentality, and expectancy. Its basic assumption, to which its critics have objected, is that individuals are rational and make rational decisions. Although the model is called VIE theory, my students have found it more helpful when I discuss the elements in a different order: E–I–V.We know that rational decision making doesn’t always occur, but it certainly does some of the time. Expectancy is defined as an individual’s belief about the likelihood of achieving a desired performance level when exerting a certain amount of effort. Figure 9.3 presents the VIE model, along with two examples. A student might ask how likely it is that studying three hours for a test will result in getting an A on the test, whereas a computer programmer might ask how likely it is that working 60 hours a week for the next three months will result in performance that is good enough to receive a favorable performance review. Expectancy is sometimes referred to as the effort–performance link—a link that should be clear from these two examples.” (I have attached the image of the examples from the textbook)“Instrumentality is the perceived relationship between the performance of a particular behavior and the likelihood that a certain outcome will result from that behavior—this is sometimes viewed as the performance–outcome link. In our school example, instrumentality is the extent to which getting an A on the test is likely to lead to other favorable outcomes, such as an A for the course or graduating with honors. In the workplace example, it is the extent to which getting a favorable performance review is likely to result in a pay raise or a promotion. In both examples, instrumentality is reflective of one outcome leading to another outcome.”“Valence, which literally means “value,” is the expected level of satisfaction to be derived from some outcome or level of performance. An outcome or performance level is positively valued if an individual expects to be satisfied by obtaining it. As Vroom (1964) noted, an outcome is more likely to be valued if other positive outcomes are likely to stem from it. In other words, if one outcome is instrumental for other outcomes, that first outcome is likely to be positively valued.”“In our school example, getting an A on the test may be valued in and of itself because it makes a student feel as though she has accomplished something important. In addition, if getting an A on the test is likely to lead to an A for the course (instrumentality), and if getting an A for the course is important to her (value), then getting an A on the test is positively valued as well. Similarly, our computer programmer may value a positive performance review because it makes him feel that he is doing a good job. In addition, he is likely to value a positive performance review if he believes that the review will result in a large pay raise (instrumentality) and if the pay raise is important to him (value).Putting all this together, Vroom (1964) suggests that individuals’ beliefs about values, instrumentalities, and expectancies interact psychologically to create the motivational force to act in such a way as to bring pleasure and avoid pain. In other words, we tend to do things that make us pleased and proud and not to do things that displease or disappoint us. Motivation is a multiplicative function of these three concepts, which means that if any of the three is zero, there is no motivation. For instance, if getting an A on the test is valued and believed to be instrumental for obtaining other valued outcomes such as an A in the course, but the student believes that it is completely unrealistic to expect that pulling an all-nighter is going to result in getting an A on the test, then she won’t pull an all-nighter. Although she perceives high levels of value and instrumentality, her zero expectancy results in the choice not to exhibit the behavior (i.e., pulling an all-nighter).”“A major implication of the VIE model is that if the organization can identify the weak link in the chain, then it can work to rectify it. I chose the performance review example because this is an area in which motivation often breaks down. Although some employees may value a favorable performance review in and of itself, most value it only if it leads to something else. (See Chapter 5 for more details about performance appraisal.) The organization needs to recognize that employees are not likely to exert great effort at work if they don’t see the performance review leading to something else of value, such as a pay raise, a promotion, additional benefits, a better job situation, or increased responsibility and autonomy. Indeed, the organization can fix this instrumentality problem by clarifying the links between performance and other outcomes. For instance, the performance review can be used as a basis for important organizational rewards, and employees can be made explicitly aware of this link.A very intriguing study examined new entrepreneurs to see the effect of VIE constructs on important outcome variables (Renko, Kroeck, & Bullough, 2011). In particular, VIE were related to participants’ intentions to begin a new firm, but even more interesting is the finding that VIE worked through intentions to impact the sales income and health of the new venture up to 2.5 years later. These results are especially interesting because we know from a great deal of data that most new entrepreneurs exit the start-up process before getting the new venture off the ground—it appears that VIE may be very important predictors of future entrepreneurial success.A meta-analysis exploring the results of almost 80 studies that tested all or part of the VIE model (Van Eerde & Thierry, 1996) uncovered a few important findings. First, the relationship between the individual VIE components and the work-related outcomes is stronger than that between a score that combines the VIE components and the work-related outcomes. In other words, although the multiplicative combination of the components may not predict outcomes very well, the data are clear that outcomes are related to the three components. Second, many of the studies reviewed were flawed because they examined the model in terms of comparisons between people rather than in terms of predicting how an individual person is likely to behave. The model was developed by Vroom to account for how motivated an individual is to exhibit a certain behavior versus a different behavior—it was not developed to compare one person’s motivation to perform a particular behavior with another person’s motivation to perform that same behavior.”“Finally, the correlations between the VIE components and attitudes/intentions were stronger than those between the VIE components and behaviors (e.g., performance, effort, and choice). Based on these findings, the authors concluded that the VIE components are clearly related to work criteria. VIE theory has since been applied to a diverse set of work-related criteria, such as occupational choices, job choices, decisions to participate in an employee involvement program, strategic decision making (Ambrose & Kulik, 1999), and test-taking motivation (Sanchez, Truxillo, & Bauer, 2000).”
The excerpts provided are from my textbook:Levy, P. E. (2020). Industrial organizational psychology: Understanding the workplace, 6th ed.New York: Worth. ISBN:9781319269982 (ebook)