Why were Islamicate societies able develop a sophisticated and advanced culture of learning during the classical and medieval periods?

Answer questions seperately. Please add page number when making reference.
I. Why were Islamicate societies able develop a sophisticated and advanced culture of learning during the classical and medieval periods? While answering this part of the question please give specific examples of this advanced Islamicate culture of learning. (This part of your answer should be 400 WORDS)II. Why did European societies lag far behind their Islamicate contemporaries in terms of learning? While answering this question please give specific examples of the cultural obstacles to learning in European societies at the time. (This part of your answer should be 200 WORDs)